Galapagos, Galapagos Islands, news, 2017, awards, Darwin’s finches, evolution, giant tortoise, extinction, breeding, Lonesome George, sharks, illegal fishing

2017 Galapagos News Roundup

This has been a busy year in the Galapagos Islands, with prestigious tourism awards, new discoveries – and challenges.

 

Award-Winning Galapagos

Throughout 2017, the Galapagos Islands racked up several important tourism awards. It landed in the Best Islands category of Travel + Leisure magazine’s World’s Best Awards thanks to the islands’ incredible snorkeling and close animal encounters. Travelers desiring to explore the Galapagos’ undersea world should take note that National Geographic placed Cousin’s Rock on its list of the World’s Greatest Scuba Diving Spots.

In December, the World Travel Awards, also known as the “Tourism Oscars,” declared the Galapagos as the World’s Best Beach Destination. And what is the best of these beaches, according to TripAdvisor’s Traveler’s Choice Awards for 2017? That would be Tortuga Bay on Santa Cruz Island, which was chosen among the Top 25 Beaches in the world.

 

Evolution in Real Time: A New Species of Darwin’s Finch

The Galapagos Islands are famous for its role in the development of Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. This year provided not only further proof supporting this theory – but also the revelation that evolution can occur within a few generations.

For decades, scientists Rosemary and Peter Grant have studied Darwin’s finches on Daphne Mayor Island. In 1981, they noticed the arrival of a male large cactus finch from Española Island, 100 kilometers (60 miles) to the south. This strange-singing bird captured the fancy of a local female medium ground finch, and they produced fertile offspring. Three Darwin finch generations later, DNA testing shows they are genetically different than any other Darwin finch population.

 

Bringing the Floreana Giant Tortoise Back to Life

Genetic testing is giving Galapagos scientists many other new insights on the islands’ unique species, including the survival of species once thought to be extinct. Such is the case of the Floreana giant tortoise, thought to be forever gone since the 1830s. DNA testing showed that some tortoises on Isabela Island’s Wolf Volcano were hybrids of the Floreana and the local giant tortoise species. In 2017, a new breeding program began at the Fausto Llerena Tortoise Center on Santa Cruz Island, to revive the Floreana tortoise and the first eggs have now hatched.

 

A Homecoming for an Extinct Galapagos Species

The same giant tortoise DNA testing program has failed to find any hybrids of the Pinta Island species. The last known member of this species, iconic Lonesome George, died in 2012, marking the official extinction of this giant tortoise species.

After careful preservation, Lonesome George returned to the Galapagos Islands in February 2017. His special, climate-controlled gallery is part of the new Giant Tortoise route at the Fausto Llerena Breeding Center.

 

Sharks in the Galapagos, part 1

Thanks to the work of several shark conservation programs, we have uncovered more fascinating information about these masters of the sea in the Galapagos Islands.  Shark monitoring led to the discovery of a scalloped hammerhead shark breeding site and nursery in the Galapagos.

Galapagos Whale Shark Project (GWSP), a project supported by the Galapagos National Park and several international agencies like the Charles Darwin Foundation, found that a high number of pregnant whale sharks pass through the archipelago, especially in the sector of the special shark reserve declared in 2016. This year, scientists successfully conducted ultrasounds on these females.

 

Sharks in the Galapagos, part 2

Not all of the news about sharks in the Galapagos was so inspiring. In August 2017, the Chinese ship Fu Yuan Yu Leng 999 was intercepted in the Galapagos Marine Reserve with 6,600 near-extinct and endangered sharks aboard. The 20-man crew was tried and sentenced to up to four years in prison each member and ordered to pay a US$5.9 million fine.

 

2017 has been a banner year in understanding and conserving the Galapagos Islands’ many incomparable species. It has also been a year of many accolades and challenges for one of the world’s most pristine nature reserves.

 

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Photo credit: Thomas Bonnin

Galapagos Islands, reptiles, giant tortoise, sea turtle, marine iguana, land iguana, pink iguana, gecko, lava lizard, snake, amphibians

Denizens of the Galapagos’ Prehistoric World: Seven Reptiles to Spot on Your Galapagos Adventure

At times, when walking through the Galapagos landscape, you feel as if you have been mysteriously transported to prehistoric times. Miniature, dinosaur-like creatures cling onto the rough rocks of the volcanic scenery.

The Galapagos Islands have often been called the Kingdom of Reptiles. These dry, desert islands are a paradise for everything from giant tortoise to iguanas – including the only ocean-going iguana in the world. But there are other reptiles crawling through the sparse brush.

These creatures’ ancestors could best survive the long journey on vegetation mats drifting from the mainland, 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) away, as they can go long periods without water. But over millions of years, they have evolved to be totally different creatures from their continental cousins.

Here’s a list of what antediluvian creatures you can expect to see during your Galapagos vacation.

 

Galapagos Islands, reptiles, giant tortoise, sea turtle, marine iguana, land iguana, pink iguana, gecko, lava lizard, snake, amphibians

Galapagos giant tortoise. photo by Oliver Dodd (www.flickr.com/photos/oliverdodd)

Giant Tortoise

The most iconic of the Galapagos Islands’ reptiles are the giant tortoises. These gentle giants arrived about three million years ago, and evolved into at least 17 different species. Each of the larger islands had its own species. On Isabela Island, each volcano has its species.

The giant tortoise population was severely affected by pirates and whalers who hunted them for their meat. Four species are known to be extinct: Rábida, Santa Fe and Pinta, whose last specimen was the famous Lonesome George. The Fernandina giant tortoise most likely became extinct naturally, due to the frequent volcanic eruptions on that island.

For more than 100 years, it was believed the Floreana giant tortoise was extinct, but several years ago, hybrid Floreana tortoises were discovered on Isabela Island. A special breeding program is now underway to bring this species back to “life.” This same breeding program brought the Española giant tortoise back from the brink of extinction.

Breeding centers exist on San Cristobal, Santa Cruz and Isabela islands. In the highlands of Santa Cruz is El Chato, a nature reserve for giant tortoises. These reptiles can also be seen plodding across other islands’ wild landscapes.

  • Scientific name – Geochelone spp.
  • Spanish name – Tortuga gigante
  • Best islands to see them – San Cristobal, Española, Santa Cruz, Santiago, Pinzon, Isabela
  • Best time of year to see them – Year-round, though best during their migration season, June-December
  • Breeding / nesting season – May-June (September on Santa Cruz); hatching season: December-April

 

Galapagos Islands, reptiles, giant tortoise, sea turtle, marine iguana, land iguana, pink iguana, gecko, lava lizard, snake, amphibians

Sea turtle. photo by Thomas Bonnin (www.flickr.com/photos/thomas-bonnin)

Sea Turtle

Seeing an East Pacific Green Turtle while swimming or snorkeling in the Galapagos Islands is a magical experience, especially in the month of October when they are quite numerous. During egg laying and hatching seasons (January-May), it is important to stay on marked paths to prevent destruction of their nests.

Several other sea turtle species migrate through the Galapagos Islands, including Hawksbill, Olive Ridley and Leatherback. Perhaps, while snorkeling, you’ll be lucky and see one of these as they swim through the archipelago.

  • Scientific name – Chelonia mydas 
  • Spanish name – Tortuga marina
  • Where to see them – Santiago, Floreana and Española; also Fernandina, Genovesa, Isabela, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz
  • Best time of year to see them – October-May
  • Breeding / nesting season – mating: November-December; nesting: January-March; hatching: April-May

 

Galapagos Islands, reptiles, giant tortoise, sea turtle, marine iguana, land iguana, pink iguana, gecko, lava lizard, snake, amphibians

Marine iguana. photo by Ivar Abrahamsen (www.flickr.com/photos/flurdy)

Marine Iguana

Charles Darwin wrote that marine iguanas were hideous creatures, imps of the dark. These remarkable reptiles are the only iguanas in the world that live in the sea.

Upon the black lava rocky shores of the Galapagos Islands, you’ll see these creatures huddled together, warming themselves after feasting on alga in the chill sea. When feeding, they can dive up to 20 meters (65 feet) deep – it is quite an experience to encounter one while snorkeling. When swimming, a marine iguana uses its long tail as a rudder.

Another fascinating feature of marine iguanas is that they sneeze, releasing excess salt from their bodies. The ones you’ll see on Española Island are famously called the “Christmas marine iguanas,” as they are turn bright green and red during the mating season.

  • Scientific name – Amblyrhynchus cristatus
  • Spanish name – Iguana marina
  • Where to see them – Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Marchena, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, North Seymour, Santa Fe, Santiago
  • Best time of year to see them – present year-round
  • Breeding / nesting season – mating: January; nesting: February-April; hatching: May-July

 

Galapagos Islands, reptiles, giant tortoise, sea turtle, marine iguana, land iguana, pink iguana, gecko, lava lizard, snake, amphibians

Land iguana. photo by Vince Smith (www.flickr.com/photos/vsmithuk)

Land Iguana

If you land at Baltra Airport, one of the first Galapagos reptiles you may see is the land iguana. (They are so common here that the landing strips have to be cleared off of them before planes arrive!)

Most of the iguanas in the Americas are green – but not in the Galapagos Islands. Here, they are a vibrant yellow-orange. This allows them to blend into the landscape of red lava rock and sere brush. The species found on Santa Fe Island (Conolophus pallidus) is pale yellow.

Land iguanas diverged from the marine iguana about 10.5 million years ago. These reptiles are common throughout the Galapagos archipelago, and can be found on most of the islands you’ll visit during your cruise. They are extinct on Santiago Island.

Another uncommonly colored iguana in the Galapagos is the pink iguana (Conolophus marthae) which is only found on Wolf Volcano on Isabela Island, an area closed to the public. The pink iguana evolved from its yellow cousins approximately 5.7 million years ago.

  • Scientific name – Conolophus subcristatus
  • Spanish name – Iguana terrestre
  • Where to see them – Baltra, North Seymour, Santa Cruz, Isabela (not on Cerro Azul), Fernandina, Plazas
  • Best time of year to see them – Year-round, but especially January-May
  • Breeding / nesting season – breeding: January; nesting: February-March; hatching: April-May

 

Galapagos Islands, reptiles, giant tortoise, sea turtle, marine iguana, land iguana, pink iguana, gecko, lava lizard, snake, amphibians

Lava lizard. photo by Brian Gratwicke (www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke)

Lava Lizard

While walking around the Galapagos Islands, be sure to look at the ground. You surely would not want to step on a lava lizard, another reptile found only in the Galapagos Islands. Throughout the archipelago, there are nine species of these small lizards.

During the mating season, female lava lizards blush deeply as their potential mates do push-ups to attract their attention.

  • Scientific name – Microlophus spp.
  • Spanish name – Lagartija de lava
  • Where to see them – Santiago, Pinta, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Floreana, San Cristobal, Isabela, Fernandina, Pinzon, Española Island, Gardner and Osborn Islets, Caldwell and Enderby Islets, Marchena
  • Best time of year to see them – Year-round, especially July-November
  • Breeding / nesting season – mating: July-November

 

Galapagos Gecko

During the night, you may hear chuckling in your land-based hotel room. These are the sounds of geckos happily feasting on ants, mosquitoes and other pests.

There six endemic species of Galapagos geckos. Fossil records show there was a seventh species on Rabida Island. All the endemic species are recognized by their leaf-shaped toes. Additionally, there are four introduced gecko species. Three have straight toes, and one is leaf-toed.

An interesting feature of some gecko species is the females are capable of reproducing without a male mate. This makes it easier for geckos to spread to new islands.

  • Scientific name – Phyllodactylus spp.
  • Spanish name – Gecko
  • Where to see them – Floreana, Isabela, Pinzón, Santa Cruz, Baltra, Santa Fe, Wolf Island, San Cristobal
  • Best time of year to see them – Year-round; nocturnal
  • Breeding / nesting season – mating: October-November

 

Galapagos Islands, reptiles, giant tortoise, sea turtle, marine iguana, land iguana, pink iguana, gecko, lava lizard, snake, amphibians

Galapagos snake. photo by Jordan Fischer (www.flickr.com/photos/jordanfischer)

Galapagos Snakes

Perhaps you have seen that seen that BBC documentary in which a whole pit of snakes pursues a newly hatched marine iguana. Although snakes are timid creatures, you might witness such a scene during your explorations of the Galapagos Islands.

Three snake species inhabit the Galapagos archipelago. All are brown and yellow, camouflaging perfectly with their surroundings. All are constrictors, and inhabit arid and coastal zones. The territories of each species do not overlap.

The Galapagos racer (Alsophis spp.) is a fairly common snake found on Santa Cruz, Baltra and Española islands. Subspecies live on Fernandina and on Isabela islands.

The Galapagos snake, also called the Floreana snake (Pseudalsophis biserialis) is endemic to Floreana Island. Subspecies exist on Española and San Cristobal islands.

The third species is Slevin’s snake or the Galapagos banded snake (Pseudalsophis slevini), found on Isabela, Fernandina and Pinzon. A subspecies, Steindachner’s snake (Striped Galapagos Snake, Pseudalsophis steindachneri) resides on Baltra, Rabida, Santa Cruz and Santiago.

As with other Galapagos reptiles, one species of snake may also be found in the sea. The yellow-bellied sea snake, also called the Pelagic sea snake (Hydrophis platurus) is a migrant in the Galapagos archipelago. You may have the luck to see one while snorkeling.

  • Scientific name – Alsophis spp., Pseudalsophis spp.
  • Spanish name – culebra
  • Where to see them – Santa Cruz, Baltra, Española, Floreana, Champion and Gardner Islets, Isabela, Fernandina, Pinzon, Rabida, Santiago, San Cristobal
  • Best time of year to see them – Year-round
  • Breeding / nesting season – unknown

 

A Note on Amphibians ….

No amphibians are endemic or native to the Galapagos Islands.

However, in 1998, the Fowler’s snouted treefrog (Scinax quinquefasciatus Fowler) was discovered residing in the Galapagos Islands. It was accidentally introduced from the coastal mainland. This treefrog has been found on San Cristobal, Santa Cruz and southern Isabela islands. Efforts to eradicate this species have been unsuccessful to date.

 

During you explorations of the Galapagos Islands – both on land and in the sea – you will discover an astounding prehistoric Kingdom of Reptiles.

 

Already been? Share your favourite sighting in the comments below.

 

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Photo credit: schorsch1982

Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants

Strolling Galapagos Shores: Shore & Wetland Birds to Spot on Your Galapagos Vacation

While strolling along the infinite sea and lagoon shores of the Galapagos, you will see more of the Islands’ endemic and resident birds.

Upon the tumbled, wave-worn lava boulders strewn across the beaches, you can observe herons and oystercatchers, natives to the Galapagos. Plovers, sandpipers and many other seasonal migrants also wander the rough-sand beaches, taking a break from cold northern winters.

Shorebirds have long, skinny legs and toes. Their feet are not webbed. The best time to observe these birds is at low tide, when they are hunting at the water’s edge for crabs and other crustaceans. Some shorebirds may also be seen at inland lagoons and wetlands.

The islands’ lagoons, marshes and other wetlands are other favorite haunts for waterfowl. The best places to observe these types of birds are outside of Puerto Villamil on Isabela Island, and on the hike to Las Grutas on Santa Cruz Island. As they spend much time in the water, these birds have webbed feet. Their diets mainly consist of insects and fish. Wetland birds include flamingos, ducks and other waterfowl.

Of the 26 shore and lagoon birds seen in the Galapagos, only one is an endemic species unique to these islands. Four others (and possibly a fifth) are endemic subspecies. Migrants include 19 regular visitors.

You won’t need binoculars to spot these shorebirds, as their habitats are easily accessible. The endemic Galapagos species are famously calm in the presence of humans. The migrants tend to be more skittish.

 

Galapagos Shore Birds
Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants

Lava Heron. photo by Aaron Logan (www.flickr.com/photos/lightmatter)

Lava Heron

Endemic to the Galapagos Islands, the Lava Heron is an excellent example of a species that blends into its lava rock environment. They are uniformly slate-grey, with a silvery sheen to the back and metallic-green gloss to the wings. During the mating season, its dark-grey beak turns black and the legs turn bright orange. This is a solitary heron, building its nests under lava rocks or in the lower branches of mangrove trees.

Some debate still exists as to whether the Lava Heron is a local variation of the Striated Heron (Butorides striata), or whether the Striated Heron resides in the Galapagos Islands alongside the endemic Lava Heron.

  • Scientific name – Butorides sundevalli
  • Spanish name – Garza de lava
  • Length – 35 centimeters (14 inches)
  • Wingspan – 63 centimeters (25 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Throughout the archipelago
  • Breeding / nesting season – As many as three mating seasons per year, though usually September-March

 

Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants

Yellow-crowned Night Heron. photo by Les Williams (www.flickr.com/photos/leswilliamsphotography)

Yellow-crowned Night Heron

This night heron subspecies is unique to the Galapagos. It has a blue-grey body. A long yellow-white plume of feathers crowns its black head, which has a white stripe below the orange eyes and a thick beak. During the breeding season, the yellow legs become salmon colored. It is common in the coastal zone of the islands, though sometimes it is found inland. This elusive heron is active at dusk and at night.

  • Scientific name – Nyctanassa violacea pauper 
  • Spanish name – huaque, garza nocturna
  • Length – 55-61 centimeters (22-24 inches)
  • Wingspan – 107-112 centimeters (42-44 inches)
  • Best island to see them  – Throughout the archipelago, except Darwin and Wolf islands
  • Breeding / nesting season – Year-round

 

Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants

Great Blue Heron. photo by Jeff Hart (www.flickr.com/photos/ipeguy)

Great Blue Heron

The first thing you’ll notice about this Galapagos subspecies of the Great Blue Heron is that it is greyer than its Great Blue cousins. Its long, sharp beak is yellow. A dark plume of feathers crests its head, which sports a black stripe above the eye. The throat is whitish. The Great Blue Heron has a varied diet that includes not only fish, but also small reptiles like lava lizards and young marine iguanas. It breeds in the coastal zones only on the larger islands.

  • Scientific name – Ardea herodias cognata 
  • Spanish name – garza morena
  • Length – 95 centimeters (37 inches)
  • Wingspan – 175 centimeters (69 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – On the main islands, particularly San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Isabela and Fernandina; also Genovesa and Marchena
  • Breeding / nesting season – Year-round

 

 

Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants

Great Egret. photo by Anne Dirkse (www.flickr.com/photos/annedirkse)

Great Egret

A close relative to the herons, the Great Egret is a resident shorebird of the Galapagos Islands. It is snowy white, with long feathers down its back. Its legs are ebony-black and its bill is yellow-orange. Count yourself lucky if you see one of these timid birds.

  • Scientific name – Ardea alba 
  • Spanish name – garza blanca
  • Length – 80-104 centimeters (31-41 inches)
  • Wingspan – 140-170 centimeters (55-67 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Santa Cruz, Isabela
  • Breeding / nesting season – unknown

 

Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants

American Oystercatcher. photo by Anne Dirkse (www.flickr.com/photos/annedirkse)

American Oystercatcher

The American Oystercatcher is a large bird with dark-brown to black back and black wings and white underside. Its bright yellow eyes are ringed with red. It has a thick red-orange beak that is used to pry open shellfish. This is another subspecies that is endemic to the Galapagos Islands.

  • Scientific name – Haematopus palliatus galapagensis
  • Spanish name – ostrero, cangrejero
  • Length – 40-44 cm (16-17 inches)
  • Wingspan – 76-90 centimeters (30-36 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Española, Fernandina, Genovesa, Isabela, Marchena, Pinta, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santiago
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: October-March; Nesting: July (especially Puerto Egas, Santiago Island)

 

Galapagos Wetland Birds
Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants

Galapagos Flamingo. photo by Steven Bedard (www.flickr.com/photos/28656738@N02)

Galapagos Flamingo

Galapagos Flamingos are high on many travelers’ must-see lists. Like its cousins, these flamingos are bright pink, with long legs and graceful, curving neck. Its wings have red coverts and black secondary flight feathers. The beak is black-tipped. They build mud nests in saltwater lagoons. Many ornithologists consider this an endemic Galapagos subspecies. The population is endangered, with only 350-500 birds. A strong El Niño event affects their food supply, and thus their breeding.

  • Scientific name – Phoenicopterus ruber glyphorhynchus
  • Spanish name – flamenco
  • Length – 120-140 centimeters (47-55 inches)
  • Wingspan – 140-166 centimeters (55-65 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Bainbridge No. 3 Islet, Santa Cruz, Floreana, Rabida, Santiago, Isabela
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: July-August; nesting: February (especially Floreana Island). However, if food supplies are excellent, flamingos can breed and nest throughout the year.

 

 

Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants

White-cheeked Pintail. photo by Andy Morffew (www.flickr.com/photos/andymorffew)

White-cheeked Pintail

The White-cheeked Pintail is the only common duck in the Galapagos Islands, and is an endemic subspecies. The body is brown, with grey-tinged upperparts and dark-brown spotted underparts. Its head is brown, and throat and cheeks are white. A green patch bordered in beige marks the wings. The bill is dark and blue-hued with a red base. These ducks can also be seen in highland ponds.

  • Scientific name – Anas bahamensis galapagensis 
  • Spanish name – Patillo
  • Length – 45-50 centimeters (18-20 inches)
  • Wingspan – 93 centimeters (37 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – San Cristobal, Española, Santa Cruz, Floreana, Santiago, Genovesa, Isabela, Fernandina
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: February (year-round if food supplies are good)

 

Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants


Black-necked Stilt. photo by Arnie Papp (www.flickr.com/photos/apapp)

Black-necked Stilt

The Black-necked Stilt has a black back and white belly. The head is black-capped with a white spot above the eye and a white throat. Its black beak is long and thin. It has very long (10-25 centimeters / 8-10 inches), rose-colored legs. This stilt is a resident of the Galapagos, and can be seen on beaches and in coastal marshes.

  • Scientific name – Himantopus mexicanus 
  • Spanish name – tero real
  • Length – 37 centimeters (14.5 inches)
  • Wingspan – 71 centimeters (28 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Santa Cruz, Isabela, Fernandina
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: December-June; Nesting: April-August

 

 

Common Gallinule

The Common Gallinule (also called Moorhen) is a resident species of the Galapagos, living in brackish lagoons. This is a duck-like, blackish-grey bird with a white line along the flanks and white under the tail. The most distinguishing feature of the Common Gallinule is the large red frontal shield above its yellow bill.

  • Scientific name – Gallinula chloropus
  • Spanish name – gallinula
  • Length – 30-38 centimeters (12-15 inches)
  • Wingspan – 54–62 centimeters (21-24 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Throughout the archipelago
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: May-October

 

Galapagos Islands, shorebirds, waterfowl, lagoons, heron, duck, flamingo, American oystercatcher, gallinule, stilt, plover, sandpiper, phalarope, migrants


Whimbrel. photo by Maciej (www.flickr.com/photos/phaselockedloop)

And Then There Are the Migrants …

The Galapagos Islands are a favorite vacation spot for Northern Hemisphere humans and migrating birds alike. As the weather turns colder in the north, many stop here on their further south destinations, or choose to spend the entire winter in the archipelago. They begin arriving in August and will stay until March. Another month to watch for them is June.

Approximately 30 species of birds migrate to the Galapagos, half of which are shorebirds. These include:

  • Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres; Spanish: vuelve piedras) – Santa Cruz, Española, Pinta,
  • Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus; Spanish: chorlitejo) – Santa Cruz, Floreana, Marchena, Pinta, Isabela
  • Black-bellied Plover (Grey Plover) (Pluvialis squatarola; Spanish: playero cabezón) – Santa Cruz, Isabela
  • Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius; Spanish: correlino) – Santa Cruz, Isabela
  • Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; Spanish: playero enano) – Santa Cruz, Floreana, Pinta, Isabela
  • Sanderling (Calidris alba; Spanish: playero común) – Isabela
  • Short billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus; Spanish: agujeta piquicorta) – Santa Cruz
  • Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus; Spanish: zarapito) – Santa Cruz, Isabela
  • Red (Grey) Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius; Spanish: falaropo rojo) – Genovesa
  • Northern Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus; Spanish: falaropo norteño) – Fernandina
  • Wilson’s Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor; Spanish: falaropo de Wilson) – Santa Cruz, Isabela
  • Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; Spanish: chorlo chico) – Santa Cruz
  • Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca; Spanish: chorlo real) – Santa Cruz
  • Wandering Tattler (Tringa incana; Spanish: errante) – Santa Cruz, Española, Floreana, Marchena, Pinzón, Isabela, Fernandina
  • Willet (Tringa semipalmata; Spanish: playero aliblanco) – Santa Cruz

Only two migrant birds frequent Galapagos lagoons. The Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors; Spanish: cerceta aliazul), which can be seen on Isabela Island, is small brown duck has a pale-blue patch on the wings. The Pied-Billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps; Spanish: sormomujo) stays on San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Floreana and Isabela islands.

 

Did you see any of these fantastic birds strolling on Galapagos shores? Tell us about it in the comments below. If you’ll be taking a Galapagos cruise, check out the seabirds that may follow you from island to island.

 

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Photo credit: Paul Krawczuk

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, gull, tern, petrel, migrants

Sailing on Galapagos Breezes: Seabirds to Spot on Your Galapagos Cruise (part 2)

While you are cruising from one Galapagos island to another, you will be visited by diverse seabirds. They may sail on the breeze, following your ship, or even land on the riggings or railings for a while.

In this part, we will follow the movements of true seabirds that spend much of their lives far out at sea. They also come to land, to nest on the coastal cliffs and shores of the Galapagos Islands. So even if you decide to take a land-based tour of the Galapagos, you may still see some of them. July and September are especially busy months for rearing their young.

Many of these seabird species are endemic, being found only in the Galapagos. Resident or indigenous species are not unique to the Galapagos, but they do live and breed in these islands. Four seabird species are migrants, temporarily visiting the Galapagos on a regular basis.

Get your binoculars and camera ready to check out these beautiful creatures. We give you the length and wingspan of each seabird species, so you may more easily identify them as they sail overhead.

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, gull, tern, petrel, migrants

Lava Gull. photo by Vince Smith (www.flickr.com/photos/vsmithuk)

Lava Gull

Only about 400 breeding pairs of Lava Gulls exist, making it the rarest of all gulls in the world. Even though they are not numerous, it is common to see them throughout the Galapagos archipelago (especially at Puerto Ayora’s Fishermen’s Wharf). Its body is sooty grey, with a paler underside. The head is darker grey, with white lining around the eyes. The eyes lids and inside of its mouth are scarlet.

  • Scientific name – Leucophaeus fuliginosus
  • Spanish name – gaviota de lava
  • Length – 51-55 centimeters (1.8 feet)
  • Wingspan – 130 centimeters (4.2 feet)
  • Best islands to see them – Throughout the archipelago, but especially Santa Cruz Island
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: May-October; nesting: November-February

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, gull, tern, petrel, migrants

Swallow-tailed Gull. photo by Murray Foubister (www.flickr.com/photos/mfoubister)

Swallow-tailed Gull

The endemic Swallow-tailed Gull is the world’s only nocturnal gull. It has a white body, and a distinctive black head with a crimson ring around its eyes. Its black bill has a grey tip. The feet are red. As its name indicates, the tail is forked. During March, keep your eyes on the cliffs, as you have a good chance of seeing fluffy Swallow-tailed Gull chicks.

  • Scientific name – Creagrus furcatus
  • Spanish name – gaviota cola bifurcada
  • Length – 51-57 centimeters (20-22 inches)
  • Wingspan – 124-139 centimeters (49-55 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Genovesa, South Plaza
  • Breeding / nesting season – Year-round

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, gull, tern, petrel, migrants

Galapagos Shearwater. photo by Jayne Bartlett (www.flickr.com/photos/jaynebartlett)

Galapagos Shearwater

The Galapagos Shearwater is dark brown to black on its back, wings, head and tail, and white on its underside. You can distinguish these low flyers by how they skim over the water with quick wingbeats. During May, great flocks of Galapagos Shearwaters are sighted during daytime navigation. This seabird is endemic to the Galapagos Islands where it breeds, and migrates to the Pacific coast of southern Mexico and Central America.

  • Scientific name – Puffinus subalaris
  • Spanish name – Pufino de Galápagos
  • Length – 29-31 centimeters (11-12 inches)
  • Wingspan – 63 centimeters (25 inches)
  • Best place to see them – islets off Santa Cruz, Española, Santa Cruz, Champion and Wolf islands
  • Breeding / nesting season – Year-round

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, gull, tern, petrel, migrants

Galapagos Petrel. photo by Lip Kee (www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee)

Petrels

Four species of Petrel can be seen in the Galapagos Islands. Three are endemic: Elliot’s Strom Petrel, Wedge-rumped Strom Petrel and Galapagos Petrel. The Band-rumped Storm Petrel is resident.

Elliot’s Storm Petrel (Oceanites gracilis galapagoensis) is a small, dark-brown bird. Distinguishing marks are a pale brown bar on the upper wings, a white rump and a pale grey belly patch. It is commonly seen during Galapagos cruises and lives on many of the islands. Little is known about its nesting habits, though it is believed it mates between April and October.

The Wedge-rumped Storm Petrel (Oceanodroma tethys tethys) is a medium-sized bird that is dark-brown down the backside and lighter on the underside. A pale brown bar marks the upper wing. The rump is white and triangular shaped. It typically breeds April to October, and nests on Genovesa and Pitt Islet.

The Galapagos Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) is locally called pata pegada. This dark-colored bird has a white forehead. It is frequently sighted on crossings between islands. In the evening, the Galapagos Petrel flies inland, and even in Puerto Aroya you may see it heading home. Listen for its high-pitched whistle. In April and May, it nests in the highlands of Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Santiago, Floreana and Isabela.

The Band-rumped Storm Petrel (Oceanodroma castro) is medium-sized, dark-brown seabird with a paler bar on the upper wing and a wide white bar across the upper tail. It has two breeding seasons (May and November), and nests on several of the archipelago’s smaller islands.

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, gull, tern, petrel, migrants

Brown Noddy Tern. photo by Les Williams (www.flickr.com/photos/leswilliamsphotography)

Brown Noddy Tern

The Brown Noddy is endemic to the Galapagos Islands. Its brown body has a whitish “cap” on its head. They earn their unusual name because they nod to each other during courtship rituals. They usually nest in cliffs or low trees, and rarely on the ground.

  • Scientific name – Anous stolidus galapagensis
  • Spanish name – Gaviotín de cabeza blanca
  • Length – 39 centimeters (15 inches)
  • Wingspan – 76 centimeter (30 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Throughout the archipelago, but especially Darwin, Española, Isabela, Pinzon, Santa Cruz, Santiago, Wolf
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: November

 

Sooty Tern

The Sooty Tern is rarely seen during most Galapagos cruises, though if you head to the western part of the archipelago, you may spot them. These birds are black along the back, with black head, wings and tail. The throat and undersides are white. A white triangle perches above the beak. The Sooty Tern is currently known to live only in the Galapagos Islands; however, there is insufficient knowledge to judge whether this tern subspecies is endemic to these islands. It breeds on Darwin Island.

  • Scientific name – Onychoprion fuscatus crissalis
  • Spanish name – Gaviotín negro
  • Length – 38-45 centimeters (15-18 inches)
  • Wingspan – 86-94 centimeters (34-37 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Western part of the Galapagos archipelago

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, gull, tern, petrel, migrants

Red-billed Tropicbird. photo by Lip Kee (www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee)

Red-billed Tropicbird

The Red-Billed Tropicbird is a stunning sight to see. This snowy-white bird has black markings around the eyes, and on the wings and lower back. Its most striking features are its bright-red beak and the 46- to 56-centimeter (18 to 22 inch) long tail streamers. When feeding, it plunge dives. It nests on sea cliffs and smaller islets throughout the archipelago. During February, flocks of majestic Red-billed Tropic Birds sail the skies near the central and southern islands of the archipelago. It is an indigenous Galapagos seabird species.

  • Scientific name – Phaethon aethereus
  • Spanish name – Pájaro Tropical
  • Best islands to see them – Darwin, Española, Genovesa, Santa Cruz, Santiago and small islets
  • Best time of year to see them – February
  • Breeding / nesting season – Year-round

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, gull, tern, petrel, migrants

Franklin’s Gull. photo by Rian Castillo (www.flickr.com/photos/digitizedchaos)

And Then There Are the Migrants …

Four seabirds are regular visitors to the Galapagos Islands. You’ll see them during the summer and winter months as they migrate from the cold weather in one hemisphere to the other. With the coming of the September equinox, they are southbound; with the March, they head to northern climes.

If you are vacationing in the Galapagos at these times, keep an eye out for the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) and Royal Tern (Thalasseus maximus) near Santa Cruz Island. The Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla) can be seen on Santa Cruz, as well as Baltra and North Seymour. If your Galapagos cruise is also visiting the western part of the archipelago, then look for Franklin’s Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) near Isabela and Fernandina islands.

 

Be sure to check out Part 1, in which we train our binoculars on the Galapagos Islands’ most iconic and common seabirds, like the Flightless Cormorant and Frigatebirds. How many of these incredible seabirds did you see on your Galapagos cruise? Tell us about it in the comments below.

 

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Photo credit: Don Heffernan

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Sailing on Galapagos Breezes: Seabirds to Spot on Your Galapagos Cruise (part 1)

While you are cruising the Galapagos Islands, you’ll see a variety of seabirds. They may sail on the breeze above your ship. For others, you’ll land on the coast and hike up to their nesting grounds.

Even though seabirds are defined as those who spend much of their lives far out at sea, the Galapagos Islands proves to us that this isn’t always the case. Some species – like the penguin – are natural non-flyers. Others – like the flightless cormorant – have evolved to become land-bound birds.

In total, 23 species of seabirds are regularly seen in the Galapagos Islands. Of these, 14 are endemic. These species or subspecies are found only in the Galapagos, although closely related species may be found elsewhere. Five indigenous or resident species live and breed in the Galapagos, though they are not unique to the archipelago. Four other seabird species are migrants, temporarily visiting the Galapagos on a regular basis.

Get your binoculars and camera ready to check out these beautiful creatures that spend much time at sea. In this first part, we aim our binoculars and cameras on the Galapagos Islands’ most famous seabirds.

 

Boobies

Boobies are the most famous of the Galapagos seabirds. Three comical species call these islands home.

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Blue-footed Booby. photo by Nicolas de Camaret (www.flickr.com/photos/ndecam)

Blue-footed Booby

The Blue-Footed Booby is the darling of the Galapagos Islands. These birds are famous for their courtship dance, in which the males “dance,” showing off their blue feet to prospective female mates. Blue-footed Boobies are easy to spot when they fish, as they plunge head-first into the sea, like a dive bomber. In recent years, breeding has been declining as the boobies’ favored food, sardines, are scarcer in the warming seas around the islands, which is being caused by climate change.

  • Scientific name – Sula nebouxii excisa
  • Spanish name – Piquero patas azules
  • Length – 80-85 centimeters (32-34 inches)
  • Wingspan – 152-158 centimeters (60-62 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – North Seymour, Española; also Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Isabela, Pinzon, Santa Cruz and other islands south of the equator.
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: April-May; nesting: July-December

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Red-footed Booby. photo by Brad Gratwicke (www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke)

Red-footed Booby

Red-footed Boobies, as the name implies, have red-colored feet. Their beaks are blue and bodies white with dark-brown markings in the wings and back. It is the smallest of the booby species in the islands. It is estimated that the Galapagos’ Red-footed Booby colony is the largest in the world.

  • Scientific name – Sula sula
  • Spanish name – Piquero patas rojas
  • Length – 70 centimeters (28 inches)
  • Wingspan – 1 meter (3.25 feet)
  • Best islands to see them – Genovesa; also San Cristobal at Pitt Point and Pitt Islet, Gardner-by-Floreana
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: June; nesting: September-December

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Nazca Booby. photo by Derek Keats (www.flickr.com/photos/dkeats)

Nazca Booby

The Nazca Booby is much different from its cousins. This booby species is white, with a black mask around its eyes, and dark-brown bands edging its wings and tail. Its beak ranges from rose to bright orange, and its feet a dull olive or blue-grey color. Nazca and the Masked Boobies used to be considered the same, but are now classified as distinct species. The Nazca Booby is the largest of the Galapagos’ booby species. Because of its large size, it often nests near the tops of cliffs.

  • Scientific name – Sula granti
  • Spanish name – Piquero de Nazca
  • Length – 1 meter (3.25 feet)
  • Wingspan – 1.5-2 meters (5-6 feet)
  • Best islands to see them – Genovesa, Española
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: December-February, June; nesting: August-September

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Waved Albatross. photo by protographer23 (www.flickr.com/photos/protographer23)

Waved Albatross

The Waved Albatross is another fantastic bird sought out by many Galapagos visitors. This endemic species can spend years at sea without touching land. They arrive en masse to the Galapagos Islands with the March equinox to mate, and stay until December to raise their young. The fledglings will not return to Española for five years, when they will then join in on the elaborate mating dance this species is known for. You can take a multi-day or day cruise to see them.

  • Scientific name – Phoebastria irrorata
  • Spanish name – Albatros de Galápagos
  • Length – 1 meter (3,25 feet)
  • Wingspan – 2,4 meters (8 feet)
  • Best islands to see them – Española
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: April; nesting: May-October

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Galapagos Penguins. photo by taquiman (www.flickr.com/photos/10705232@N06)

Galapagos Penguin

The Galapagos Penguin is the second-smallest penguin in the world, and the only one found north of the equator. This flightless bird is endemic to the Galapagos Islands. Like their cousins, these penguins are black and white, with a white line around the face. They have a relatively long bill. They can dive to a depth of eight meters (26 feet), though on occasion can go as deep as 55 meters (180 feet). These seabirds are heavily affected by the El Niño phenomenon, when their food supplies are limited. In February, they migrate from Bartholomé Island to Isabela and Fernandina. Watch for them torpedoing through the water.

  • Scientific name – Spheniscus mendiculus
  • Spanish name – Pingüino de Galápagos
  • Height – 49-53 centimeters (19-21 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Bartholomé, Isabela, Fernandina
  • Breeding / nesting season – April-May, August-September

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Flightless cormorant. photo by Brian Gratwicke (www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke)

Flightless Cormorant

The Flightless Cormorant is the largest cormorant and the only one incapable of flight. Its long body is a velvety dark grey. This cormorant has stunning sapphire-blue eyes. It has short legs and a long, hooked bill. After swimming, it comes to land and spreads its tatty wings to dry. This species is also very affected by the El Niño.

  • Scientific name – Phalacrocorax harrisi
  • Spanish name – cormorán no volador
  • Length: 89-100 centimeters (35-39 inches)
  • Best islands to see them – Isabela, Fernandina
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: July; nesting: August-September. If food supplies are plentiful, Flightless Cormorants may also mate and nest in October and/or December.

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Brown Pelican. photo by Anne Dirkse (www.flickr.com/photos/annedirkse)

Brown Pelican

The Brown Pelican is instantly recognizable by its large, pouched bill. This bird is common throughout the Galapagos archipelago (especially at the Fishermen’s Wharf in Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz Island). During the breeding season, the adults have white and chestnut-colored markings on their heads and necks. The Brown Pelican breeds on all the central islands, as well as on Española and Marchena.

  • Scientific name – Pelecanus occidentalis urinator
  • Spanish name – Pelícano café
  • Length – 1.2 meters (4 feet)
  • Wingspan – 2 meters (6.5 feet)
  • Best islands to see them – Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Marchena, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago.
  • Breeding / nesting season – Year-round

 

Galapagos Islands, cruises, seabirds, sea birds, blue-footed booby, boobies, penguin, flightless cormorant, waved albatross, pelican, frigatebirds

Magnificent Frigatebird. photo by E.K.111 (www.flickr.com/photos/ek111)

Frigatebirds

Frigatebirds are known as the pirates of the seabird world, as they steal food from other birds while in flight. The reason is that Frigatebirds lack sufficient oils to waterproof their feathers, and thus cannot dive into the sea to catch their food as other seabirds do.

Two species of Frigatebirds are found in the Galapagos Islands. At Cerro Tijeretas on San Cristobal, you can see both types living side by side. Both are approximately the same size, and breed and nest year-round. Additionally, both species are black, and the males have a red throat that they inflate during the mating display.

The Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens magnificens) is endemic to the Galapagos. Males have a metallic-violet sheen to their black plumage. The females are black with white underside and black throat; a thin blue ring circles their eyes. A large colony of the Magnificent Frigatebird is on North Seymour Island.

The Great Frigatebird (Fregata minor) is a resident Galapagos species. It is slightly smaller than its Magnificent cousin, and has a greenish hue to its black feathers. The females are black with white underside and throat, and a red ring around its eyes.

  • Scientific name – Fregata spp
  • Spanish name – tijereta, fragata
  • Length – 1 meter (3.25 feet)
  • Wingspan – 2.4 meters (8 feet)
  • Best islands to see them – Throughout the archipelago, but especially San Cristobal, Genovesa and North Seymour
  • Breeding / nesting season – Breeding: year-round, depending on the island (March-May on San Cristobal and Genovesa, June on North Seymour); nesting: May-October, depending on the island

 

There are many more seabirds you’ll see as you cruise through the Galapagos Islands. In Part 2, we’ll focus our binoculars on those that are truly sea-faring aves, including gulls, terns and petrels.

 

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Photo credit: Brad Gratwicke

Galapagos Islands, expedition, scientific research, California Academy of Sciences, Charles Darwin, evolution, Darwin’s finches, giant tortoises, San Francisco, earthquake

A Galapagos Expedition with a Mission: California Academy of Sciences, 1905-1906

The California Academy of Sciences 1905-1906 Galapagos expedition set sail with a mission. Despite the challenges it faced, it came home triumphant, leaving us with a deeper understanding of the islands’ evolution and ecology.

The California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was founded in 1853 in San Francisco, California, only three years after that state joined the union. It was the first institution of its kind in the western United States. CAS was a cutting-edge academy, drawing the best scientific minds of the time and encouraging women scientists to join its ranks.

At the beginning of the 20th century, CAS decided to expand its scope of study from that of California’s fascinating natural history. It would set sail for the Galapagos Islands. The mission: to gather as many Galapagos Islands species as possible and to prove Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.

On June 28, 1905, the 89-foot schooner Academy left San Francisco, then the major and richest U.S. port on the Pacific coast. Aboard were eight sailor-scientists, including a geologist, mammologist, ornithologist and other specialists. At the helm of the expedition and the ship was Rollo H. Beck, considered to be the foremost specimen collector of his day.

 

The California Academy of Sciences Explores the Galapagos

The turn of the century found scientists concerned with the disappearance of species around the world. The thought at that time was that as many specimens should be collected before extinction set in. It was better that these flora and fauna be preserved in museums for future scientific research.

The Academy began its 15-month journey by making occasional stops along the Pacific coast of Mexico and Central America to gather specimens. The crew also found their sailing ship at the mercy of uncertain currents and the weather’s whims, at times becalmed and at other times lashed about in strong winds.

On September 23, 1905, the sailor-scientists finally caught sight of Chatham (San Cristobal) Island. This was the beginning of a systematic survey of the Galapagos’ flora and fauna, collecting as much as possible before the expected extinction of the islands’ unique wildlife. They touched land on 24 islands, including all the major ones (San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Floreana, Isabela, Santiago and Española) which they visited numerous times.

These sailor-scientists gave us many lasting legacies of their time there, but three stand out. One is that they captured the only known specimen of the Fernandina species of giant tortoise (Chelonoidis phantastica); it is believed this species had a natural extinction due to the island’s frequent volcanic eruptions.

The second one is that the crew witnessed the real-time destruction of Barrington (Santa Fe) Island’s environment. Not only did they see the damage being caused by introduced species like the black rat on land iguanas and other local animals, but also the near-extinction of that island’s giant tortoise population at the hand of humans.

The third major legacy of this expedition was the name of Academy Bay on the south side of Santa Cruz Island. On November 5, 1905, upon entering this bay, the schooner Academy almost shipwrecked on a reef. (At the time, this island was uninhabited. It is amazing to think it is now home to Puerto Ayora, the largest town in the Galapagos Islands.)

The crew of the Academy received horrifying news on April 20, 1906 from the passing cargo ship, the Cotopaxi: A devastating 7.8 earthquake had struck their homeport, San Francisco, two days earlier. The city was heavily destroyed. What these sailor-scientists would not know for many months yet to come was of the three-day fire that swept the city afterward, nor the fates of their families and of the California Academy of Sciences. Their scientific mission must continue.

After one year and one day in the Galapagos archipelago, the Academy and its crew of sailor-scientists departed Culpepper (Darwin) Island – the same last visage Charles Darwin had of the Galapagos – and sailed northward.

 

The California Academy of Sciences’ Galapagos Mission Continues

When the Academy pulled into San Francisco harbor on November 29, 1906, it found a city rebuilding itself. The CAS museum and labs – which had been destroyed in the earthquake and subsequent fire – were still in ruins. The CAS would not reopen until 1916.

The over 78,000 plant, mollusk, insect, bird, mammal and reptile specimens the scientists gathered would become not only the basis for the CAS’ new museum, but also the largest Galapagos specimens collection in the world. With such a vast array of specimens, scientists gained a better understanding of the origins and evolution of the Galapagos Islands’ iconic species, the Darwin finches and the giant tortoise. Into the 21st century, these specimens are still used by scientists.

The 1905-1906 CAS expedition also yielded dozens of scientific publications, including Beck’s log (which can be read online). The entire voyage is recounted in Log of the Schooner “Academy” On a Voyage of Scientific Research to the Galapagos Islands 1905-1906 (California Academy of Sciences, Occasional Papers, XVII, 1931) by Joseph Richard Slevin, the expedition’s  assistant herpetologist and second mate, and Collecting Evolution: The Galapagos Expedition that Vindicated Darwin by Matthew J. James (Oxford University Press, 2017).

Since that first expedition to the Galapagos, the CAS has continuously returned to the islands, sponsoring dozens of expeditions. In the past few decades, it has focused on the archipelago’s marine environment. In this underwater world, CAS scientists have discovered dozens of new species. The CAS also helped establish the Charles Darwin Research Station and Galapagos National Park, and continues to collaborate in scientific research projects with these institutions.

 

The majority of the present-day knowledge of the Galapagos Islands stems from the California Academy of Sciences’ 1905-06 expedition. To this day, we continue to enjoy its legacies at the Academy’s museums, in scientific literature and in the islands themselves. When you walk the grounds of the Charles Darwin Research Station, keep your eyes peeled for a plaque dedicated to the Academy’s arrival at Academy Bay.

 

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Photo credit: Paul Krawczukm

Family watching Galapagos islands videos

Twelve Titles on Galapagos – Videos

You’re dreaming of going to the Galapagos Islands – and you can do so virtually! Grab a bowl of popcorn and your favorite munchies, and settle in to watch these videos that’ll help you escape to the Enchanted Isles and their amazing wildlife.

We have chosen movies made in this new millennium, dealing with not only Galapagos animals but also evolution and human history. The entire family, from seven to 77, will enjoy these adventures. Some videos may be used as lesson plans for your younger members.

Check at your favorite local or on-line video shop for these and other works. You can also check on-line for these titles, or borrow them from your public library.

 

Wild Galapagos

National Geographic, 2017

Duration: 1 hour

This part of National Geographic’s “Mission Critical” series examines the endangered species of the Galapagos Islands.

 

Galapagos

BBC, 2017

Duration: 3 one-hour episodes

Naturalist host Liz Bonnin joins the crew of a research vessel on a scientific expedition to the Galapagos Islands. The episode “Cauldron of Life” explores Fernandina, Isabela and Wolf islands, with a visit to see rare pink iguanas. In “Secrets of the Deep,” the expedition dives deep into the Galapagos’ underwater world. Human effects on the Islands’ environment are discussed in “Future Frontiers.”

 

Galapagos: Islands of Change

BBC, 2015

Duration: 1 hour

Legendary nature commentator David Attenborough takes us to see the modern-day Galapagos. Can its unique wildlife survive in this ever-changing world?

 

Access 360º World Heritage: Galapagos

National Geographic, 2014

Duration: 45 minutes

In its series “Access 360º World Heritage,” National Geographic examines the challenges of preserving and maintaining UNESCO World Heritage Sites. This episode focuses on how new technology is helping to preserve the Galapagos Islands’ environment.

 

Galapagos 3D

Sky TV, 2013

Duration: 3 one-hour episodes

David Attenborough visits the Galapagos for the fourth time in his career, and narrates the islands’ natural history from their fiery birth and through the evolution of their astonishing animals. The three parts are:  “Origin,” “Adaptation” and “Evolution”. This is the first 3D movie filmed in the Galapagos Islands. Re-released in a 2D version, under the title “David Attenborough’s Galapagos.”

 

The Galapagos Affair: Satan Came to Eden

Zeitgeist Films, 2013

Duration: 120 minutes

Cate Blanchett narrates this long-awaited documentary about the murder-mystery that shrouded Floreana Island in the 1930s. What did happen to the Baroness and her lover? What caused Friedrich Ritter’s strange death? Includes interviews with Galapagos residents about life in the Galapagos Islands.

 

Darwin’s Secret Notebooks

National Geographic, 2009

Duration: 90 minutes

Armand Leroi leads on a journey to the Galapagos Islands and other places that inspired Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.

 

Charles Darwin and the Tree of Life

BBC, 2009

Duration: 1 hour

In most people’s minds, Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution was born in the Galapagos Islands. But it was a decades-long process. David Attenborough leads us on the long road to discovery, from Down House (Darwin’s home in Kent), to Cambridge University and London’s Natural History Museum.

 

Galapagos

BBC, 2006

Duration: 3 fifty-minute episodes

Narrator Tilda Swinton leads us on a three-part exploration of the Galapagos Islands’ fauna and their evolution. The episodes are: “Born of Fire,” “The Islands That Changed the World” and “Forces of Change.”

 

The Galapagos Islands: Land of Evolutionary Change

Discovery Education, 2005

Duration: 45 minutes

Jeff Corwin follows in the footsteps of Charles Darwin, encountering giant tortoises, land and marine iguanas, and other species that have evolved since Mr. Darwin’s visit. Perfect for children in grades 3-8.

 

Two Years in Galapagos

ABC/National Geographic TV, 1999-2000

Duration: 50 minutes

Nature film producers David Parer and Liz Parer-Cook document their three-year-old daughter’s adventures in the Galapagos Islands, while mom and dad were making the award-winning “Dragons of Galapagos” and “Islands of the Vampire Birds.”

 

Galapagos: Beyond Darwin

Discovery Education, 1996; re-edited and re-released on DVD in 2008

Duration: 86 minutes

Roscoe Lee Browne leads us into the Galapagos’ deep seas, a world Charles Darwin could not explore during his 1835 expedition to the Islands. We also learn how these volcanic islands developed life. Suitable for students in grades 6-8. The Discovery Education website includes study materials.

 

Check out the other parts of Galapagos Travel Planner’s exclusive “Twelve Titles on Galapagos” series: Natural History, Human History, and For Children. Did we include your favorite video? Share it in the comments below.

 

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Galapagos National Park – A Brief History

Upon arriving in the Galapagos Islands, visitors are greeted with a sign depicting a giant tortoise and a hammerhead shark. These are the official symbols of Galapagos National Park and Marine Reserve, one of the world’s most pristine nature areas.

The Galapagos archipelago’s more than 230 islands and islets are protected by the Galapagos National Park (7,970 square kilometers / 3,077 square miles) and the Galapagos Marine Reserve (covering 133,000 square kilometers / 51,352 square miles). The conservation of these areas took many years. The national park’s founding is often said to be 1959, though its roots go back several decades more. The marine reserve would be much later in coming.

 

The Beginnings of Galapagos Conservation

In the 1930s, the impact of humans – pirates and whalers, and later colonists – on the Galapagos archipelago’s delicate ecosystem was beginning to show. Giant tortoises had disappeared from some islands, and a rash of non-native plants were taking over the landscape.

Several institutions, including the British Museum and the California Academy of Sciences, expressed their concern about the Galapagos’ future. With the centenary of British naturalist Charles Darwin’s visit, the Ecuadorian government moved to protect the Galapagos Islands.

In 1934, Executive Decree 607 protected sensitive species, banned the hunting of giant tortoises and restricted yacht and ship traffic into the Galapagos archipelago. With Supreme Decree 31 in 1936, Ecuador declared the islands a national reserve. This was the country’s first protected nature area. The decree also established a scientific commission for the islands’ conservation.

But implementation of these protections was difficult. Resources were scarce and the Galapagos were too far away from the central government to guarantee the effective enforcement of the laws.

 

The Push to Save the Galapagos

With the 100-year anniversary of the publication of Charles Darwin’s revolutionary Theory of Evolution, the international scientific community again pushed for protection of the Galapagos Islands.

In the early 1950s, prominent scientists like Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Robert Bowman lobbied for better protection of the Galapagos. Upon the presentation of their field studies, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, UNESCO and other international bodies recommended immediate action be taken.

In mid-1959, Ecuador made the Galapagos Islands a national park. This new law also banned the capture of iguanas, giant tortoises and other species. Port captains became the appointed authorities for implementation of the new regulations.

Also in 1959, the Charles Darwin Foundation was established and work immediately began to control and eradicate invasive species, like goats on South Plaza Island. The Charles Darwin Research Station, the center for scientific research on the islands’ species and preservation, officially opened in 1964. The station’s work also included training Ecuadorians in conservation issues.

But true protection of the Galapagos Islands was still more than a decade away.

Ecuador did not have a national park service until 1968, when it appointed its first two conservation officers. Ministerial Accord 690A of 1969 defined the boundaries of the Galapagos National Park and set aside three percent of the area for agricultural and urban use, and legally established Ecuador’s National Park Service. The first park superintendent was appointed in 1972, the same year that construction of the Galapagos National Park buildings began. By 1973, 18 park staff members were on board. The first National Park Master Plan was published in 1974.

 

Galapagos National Park Grows

Over the next few decades, Galapagos National Park grew in both world recognition and in size of protected area.

Galapagos National Park’s importance flourished when UNESCO declared it one of the first World Heritage Sites in 1978. This honor rests on four criteria, including the abundant variety of underwater life, and the islands’ unique flora and fauna on land. In 1984, UNESCO gave the Galapagos Islands further recognition by naming it a Biosphere Reserve.

In 2002, the 872-hectare Humedales del Sur de Isabela, which includes the Poza de los Diablos and coastal and marine wetlands near Puerto Villamil on Isabela Island, were placed on Ramsar’s list of Wetlands of International Importance.

During these years, the size of the Galapagos protected areas also grew. In 1986, the seas around the islands were declared a Marine Resource Reserve with the goal to control illegal fishing and use of marine resources. In 1998, the implementation of the Special Regime Law for the Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Province of the Galapagos led to the creation of the Galapagos Marine Reserve. This is one of the world’s largest marine reserves.

The Ecuadorian government took further measures to protect the Galapagos Islands by declaring a 38,000-square kilometer (15,000-square mile) marine sanctuary around Darwin and Wolf Islands. Studies by the Galapagos National Park and international partners show that this is an important resting and birthing ground for a variety of shark species.

 

Challenges Galapagos National Park Faces

In 2007, UNESCO placed the Galapagos Islands on the list of endangered world heritage sites, citing threats of invasive species, uncontrolled tourism and over-fishing. Because of the Ecuador government’s measures to address these problems, the Galapagos were removed from the endangered list in 2010.

One problem that has haunted the Galapagos since humans first began going to them is the introduction of invasive species like black rats and blackberry bushes. These pose a grave threat to the islands’ endemic plants and wildlife, and have caused the extinction of several species. In 1998, Galapagos National Park instituted inspections of all luggage and other items traveling to the Galapagos from the mainland and between the islands. This measure is to prevent the introduction and spread of foreign species.

Another long-standing threat Galapagos National Park faces is illegal fishing. The area to be patrolled is immense, yet resources are scarce. Ships are periodically encountered with holds full of sharks, sea cucumbers or other protected species. In mid-2017, a flotilla of Chinese fishing boats was caught with 6,600 sharks from Galapagos waters.

 

Galapagos National Park, in partnership with national and international organizations and universities, continues its important work of studying and preserving the islands’ environment. Since the national park’s foundation, it has spearheaded the recovery of land iguana and giant tortoise populations. A new project focuses on bringing the Floreana tortoise back from extinction, which will be a new addition to island visitors’ wildlife checklists.

 

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Photo credit: Danielle Golon

Galapagos Islands, books, child, children, nature, animals, Darwin

Twelve Titles on Galapagos – For Children

You and your family are dreaming of going to the Galapagos Islands. How can you prepare your young ones for their explorations of these enchanting isles?

A surprising number of children’s books about the Galapagos have been published. Share these works aloud with your kids at bedtime or on a rainy afternoon. Some have activities you can enjoy with your children. We have chosen books for a range of ages, from kindergarten to pre-teen.

Check with an on-line or your local bricks-and-mortar bookshop for these and other works. Or borrow them from your public library. (If it doesn’t have the books you wish to peruse, you can request them through interlibrary loan for a small fee.)

 

The Adventures of Piratess Tilly

by Elizabeth Lorayne

Piratess Tilly heads to the Galapagos with her koala and a menagerie of animals to explore the islands’ flora and fauna. There they encounter pirates kidnapping giant tortoises. How will Tilly and her friends save those mellow reptiles? This book, written in haiku, won the Moonbeam Spirit Award Winner for Exploration, for children’s books. For ages 4-8.

 

Darwin and Evolution for Kids

by Kristan Lawson

This book includes 21 activities, like a botanical treasure hunt and how to keep a naturalist journal, that you can do with your child to learn more about Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. For ages 10-14.

 

Galapagos Bedtime Stories

by Paula Tagle Saad

Through tales of the islands’ unique fauna, Galapagos naturalist guide Paula Tagle Saad recounts how these animals’ lives are. You’ll meet many of the isles’ natives, like a waved albatross that’s afraid of heights, and find out why flightless cormorants can no longer fly. For ages 4-8.

 

A Galapagos Day

by Sarah Martin

Learn about a day in the life of a new-born sea lion pup. For ages 5-9.

 

Galapagos Islands Coloring Book

by Jan Sovak

Your child will spend hours on a rainy (or snowy) day learning about the Galapagos while coloring these drawings of the islands’ animals. It contains much information about the wildlife. This would also be a good book to take along on your Galapagos cruise. For any age (even grown-ups!)

 

“Galapagos” Means “Tortoise”

by Ruth Heller

With poetry and pictures, your young one will learn about giant tortoises – and blue-footed boobies, marine iguanas, sea lions and eight other Galapagos creatures. For ages 6-9.

 

Island: A Story of the Galápagos

by Jason Chin

Through watercolors and text, Chin explains the Galapagos Islands’ geology, evolution and wildlife in a language your pre-teens will understand. For ages 8-12.

 

Inside the Beagle with Charles Darwin

by Fiona Macdonald and Mark Bergin

Board the HMS Beagle and learn how life aboard was for the Galapagos Islands’ most famous naturalist scientist, Charles Darwin. For ages 7-12.

 

Lala Goes To the Galapagos Islands

by Virginia Ives

A grandmother’s photographic journey with her grandson to the Galapagos Islands. For ages 5 and up.

 

An Old Shell: Poems of the Galapagos

by Tony Johnston

Through his 34 poems and drawings, Johnston tells us about his trip to the magical Galapagos Islands. For ages 7 and up.

 

Tomas and the Galapagos Adventure

by Carolyn Lunn

A fun tale of Tomas, an Ecuadorian child, who dream-journeys to the Galapagos Islands where he rides on a sea turtle and sees humpback whales and hammerhead sharks, lunches with pirates, and escapes from a volcanic eruption – and makes it home in time for dinner! For ages 5-8.

 

We’re Sailing to the Galapagos

by Laurie Krebs and Grazia Restelli

Get ready to sail to the Galapagos Islands, to see waved albatrosses, iguanas, giant tortoises and more of the isles’ fascinating animals. For ages 5-8.

 

These twelve titles will help your young explorers prepare for their Galapagos adventure. And be sure to check out the other parts of Galapagos Travel Planner’s exclusive “Twelve Titles on Galapagos” series: Natural History, Human History, and Videos. Did we miss your favorite book? Share it in the comments below.

 

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Photo credit: Aaron_M

Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin Research Station, Charles Darwin Foundation, conservation, science, tortoise breeding

The Charles Darwin Research Station

The Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island is one of the most popular stops on any visit to the Galapagos. But what exactly does it do in the islands, and why is it so important?

 

History of the Charles Darwin Research Station

Efforts to protect the Galapagos Islands began in the 1930s. It wasn’t until the 1950s, however, that things began to gel. With the support of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and UNESCO, the Belgian-based Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) was established in 1959 to begin building the Charles Darwin Research Station (CDRS). This would be the headquarters for CDF’s conservation projects.

The Ecuadorian government signed a 50-year agreement with CDF. In August 2016, the CDRS’ mission was extended for another 25 years. CDF’s scientific research will focus on global warming, the impact of human activity in the Galapagos, innovation of sustainable systems and the islands’ biodiversity. Its work will be conducted in both Galapagos National Park and the Galapagos Marine Reserve. CDF will collaborate with Ecuador’s higher education and scientific institutions, as well as with internationally recognized universities and research institutions.

The early history of the CDRS, before tourism became the mainstay of the islands, is fascinating reading. Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt, member of the CDF Executive Councils since 1959, discusses the necessities of preserving the Galapagos Islands and the search for the research station’s headquarters in his work, Galapagos: The Noah’s Ark of the Pacific. Roger Perry recounts his experiences as the CDRS director (1964-1970) in Island Days.

 

CDRS and the Preservation of the Galapagos Islands

Since its inception, the CDRS has worked with national and international institutions and scientists to study and preserve the Galapagos Islands’ unique flora and fauna. In its over 50 years of existence, CDF has helped to establish the giant tortoise breeding program, thus saving these gentle giants from extinction on Española and other islands, as well as the land iguana program. It has aided the Ecuadorian government in setting up quarantine inspection to prevent the introduction of alien species to the islands, and in programs to eradicate goats, rats and other invasive animals. CDRS scientists’ research also was instrumental in the creation of one of the world’s largest marine reserves.

One current research project is on the elimination of the Philornis downsi fly, an introduced species that kills endangered Mangrove finch and other songbird hatchlings. Another project is Galapagos 2050, an innovative program to reforest the islands with native plant species. As well, CDRS scientists continue monitoring over 100 species on land and in the sea, from birds to sharks.

Over this past half-century, CDF’s mission also has extended to education, working in the islands’ schools and with the local communities. CDF has trained national park personnel, and over 2,000 students from Galapagos and mainland Ecuador.

CDF has been recognized for its work in preserving the Galapagos Islands’ unique environment. These awards include the Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation (UNESCO, 1999), J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize (2001), Society for Conservation Biology Award for Distinguished Achievement (2002), Cosmos International Award (Japan, 2002) and the BBVA Foundation Prize (2004).

 

Visiting the Charles Darwin Research Station

Many cruise ships stop at Santa Cruz Island to visit the research station in Puerto Ayora. If you’re an independent traveler, though, you can easily get there yourself.

The Charles Darwin Research Station is located at the southern end of Avenida Charles Darwin, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) from downtown Puerto Ayora. Between the national park headquarters and the station, you’ll encounter the path to the tortoise breeding corrals and Lonesome George exhibition hall.

At the station itself you can visit the CDRS museum which also has a gift shop, snack shop and observation tower. The G. Corley Smith Library houses one of the largest Galapagos-specific collections in the world. Paths lead to gardens and displays explaining CDF’s latest projects. As well, there are several beaches that are popular with local Galapagos residents. Before you leave, be sure to take your photo with Charles Darwin (his statue, that is, at the Fischer Sciences Building).

CDRS also has an internationally-recognized herbarium with the most complete Galapagos plant collection in the world and an insect collection, both open to researchers. The science research laboratories and offices are closed to the public.

From any corner in the world, you can browse the CDF’s herbarium, museum collections and select publications through its Datazone. The library’s catalog is also available online. And if you can’t (yet) make it to the Galapagos Islands, check out Google 360, a “street-view” trek of these enchanted isles, another project in which the CDF was a partner.

 

For generations to come, the Charles Darwin Foundation and its Charles Darwin Research Station will continue to provide essential scientific information to the Ecuadorian government and local communities, to help protect these special Galapagos Islands.

 

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Photo credit: Aaron Logan